Implementation Theory


In this line of research, my colleagues and I investigate the preconditions for effective adoption, implementation and continuation of evidence-based interventions. We also evaluate policy measures, and conduct formative research to support (local) governments in their efforts to enhance healthy lifestyles of their citizens.


Preconditions for effective implementation of tailored-based interventions to enhance an active life-style among high risk population (ZonMW, 2009)

The effects of the public smoking ban on current smokers’ smoking behavior and (self)conceptions, and implications for governmental communication (Miro/Pfizer, 2009)

Who takes care of the caregivers? On risk-profiles for (too) heavy perceived burden among caregivers (ZonMW, 2015)

Evaluation of interventions to promote self-management among people with intellectual disability (Stichting Raamwerk,  2014)

The background of alcohol use by youth in the municipality of Teylingen: Interviews with 15-year olds and their mothers (ZonMW/Academic Workplace, 2011)

E-learning program for professionals in primary care and welfare to improve the identification and management of adults at high risk of depression (ZonMW, 2010; PI Nicolette van der Zouwe)

Health checks in vulnerable groups: the role of beliefs and expectations (Lekker Lang Leven, 2009; PI Matty Crone/Sandra van Dijk)


Obtain the fulltext of most of my publications at Researchgate.

Sandjojo, J., Gebhardt, W. A., Zedlitz, A. M. E. E., Hoekman, J., Dusseldorp, E., den Haan, J. A., & Evers, A. W. M. (2019). Development of the Leiden Independence Questionnaire for Support Staff: a measure of staff behaviour regarding promoting independence of people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 63(4), 286-297.

Sandjojo, J.,  Gebhardt, W.A., Zedlitz, A.M.E.E., Hoekman, J., den Haan, J. &  Evers, A.W.M. (2019). Effects of a self-management training for people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 32(2), 390-400.

Sandjojo, J., Hoekman, J., Gebhardt, W.A., Zedlitz, A.M.E.E., den Haan, J. &  Evers, A.W.M. (2019). Promoting independence of people with intellectual disabilities: A focus group study. Perspectives from people with intellectual disabilities, legal representatives, and support staff. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 16(1), 37-52.

Sandjojo, J., Zedlitz, A.M.E.E., Gebhardt, W.A., Hoekman, J., Dusseldorp, E.M.L., den Haan, J. &  Evers, A.W.M. (2018). Training staff to promote self-management in people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 31, 840–850.

Papamikrouli, E., van Schie, C. M., Schoenmaker, J., Berge, A. B. V., & Gebhardt, W. A. (2017). Peer support needs among adults with burns. Journal of Burn Care & Research38(2), 112-120.

Huijg, J. M., Gebhardt, W. A., Verheijden, M. W., van der Zouwe, N., de Vries, J. D., Middelkoop, B. J., & Crone, M. R. (2015). Factors influencing primary health care professionals’ physical activity promotion behaviors: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22(1), 32-50.

Huijg, J.M., Dusseldorp, E., Gebhardt, W.A., Verheijden, M.W., van der Zouwe, N., Middelkoop, Duijzer, G. & Crone, M.R. (2015). Factors associated with physical therapists’ implementation of physical activity interventions in the Netherlands. Physical Therapy, 95:539-577.

Groenenberg, I., Crone, M.R., van Dijk, S., Gebhardt, W.A., Ben Meftah, J., Middelkoop, B.J.C., Stiggelbout, A.M., & Assendelft W.J.J. (2015). “‘Check it out!’ Decision-making of vulnerable groups about participation in a two-stage cardiometabolic health check: a qualitative study”. Patient Education and Counseling, 98:234-344.

Huijg, J.M., Gebhardt, W.A., Dusseldorp, E., Verheijden, M. W., Middelkoop, B.J.C., Crone, M.R. (2014). Measuring determinants of implementation behavior: psychometric properties of a questionnaire based on the Theoretical Domains Framework. Implementation Science 9: e33.

Huijg, J.M., Gebhardt, W.A., Crone, M.R., Dusseldorp, E. & Presseau, J. (2014). Discriminant content validity of a Theoretical Domains Framework questionnaire for use in implementation research. Implementation Science, 9:e11.

Rijsdijk, L.E. Bos, A.E.R., Lie, R., Leerlooijer, J.N., Eiling, E., Atema, V., Gebhardt, W.A. & Ruiter, R. (2014). Implementation of school-based comprehensive sex education programmes: A process evaluation of “The World Starts With Me” in Uganda. Health Education Research, 29:340-353.

Huijg, J.M., Crone, M.R., Verheijden, M.W., van der Zouwe, N., Middelkoop, B.J.C., & Gebhardt, W.A. (2013). Factors influencing the adoption, implementation, and continuation of physical activity interventions in PHC: a Delphi study. BMC Family Practice, 14, 142 (9 pages).

Van der Heiden, S., Gebhardt, W.A., Willemsen, M.C., Nagelhout, G.E., & Dijkstra, A. (2013). Behavioral and psychological responses of lower educated smokers to the smoke-free legislation in Dutch hospitality venues: A qualitative study. Psychology & Health, 28, 49-66.

Gebhardt, W.A., van der Doef, M.P., Billingy, N. , Carstens, M. & Steenhuis, I. (2012). Preferences for condom placement in stores among young Dutch men and women: relationships with embarrassment and motives for having sex. Sexual Health, 9, 233-239

Nagelhout, G. E., Willemsen, M. C., Gebhardt, W. A., Van den Putte, B., Hitchman, S. C., Crone, M. R., Fong, G. T., Van der Heiden, S., & De Vries, H. (2012). Does smoke-free legislation and smoking outside bars increase feelings of stigmatization among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. Health & Place, 18, 1436-1440.

 josanne huijgs dissertationSee also Josanne Huijg’s PhD dissertation

Kenter, E., Crone, M.R., Gebhardt, W.A., Lottman, I. & Van Rossum, M. (2013). Wat beweegt u? Een kwalitatief onderzoek naar de invloed van levensgebeurtenissen tijdens de ouderdom op het beweeggedrag van senioren uit Alphen aan den Rijn en Oegstgeest. Universiteit Leiden/Academische Werkplaats Publieke Gezondheid Noordelijk Zuid-Holland.

Van der Horst, R.I., Dirksen, C.G., Gebhardt, W.A., Reis, R., Van Steenbergen, J. (2014). Beeldvorming over chronische hepatitis B: Wat weten Turkse virusdragers in Den Haag eigenlijk zelf van hun ziekte? Epidemiologisch Bulletin, 49(1), 11-16.

Gebhardt, W.A. (2012). Leefstijlverandering in de huisarstenpraktijk. Modern Medicine, 6, 211-2013.

Gebhardt, W.A., van Torenburg, S., Vooijs, M., van Rhijn, A. & Tielen, H. (2012). Alcohol & Adolescenten: De achtergronden van alcoholgebruik door jongeren in de gemeente Teylingen: Interviews met 15-jarige jongeren en hun moeders. Universiteit Leiden/Academische Werkplaats Publieke Gezondheid Noordelijk Zuid-Holland.

Gebhardt, W.A. (2014). Raising the minimal legal drinking age: the best preventive measure thinkable, Leiden Psychology Blog.